HTML Programming

Q: Define Quirks Mode.

A: When a page has been coded for older, pre-standards browser behavior (often IE6), you can tell the browser to adopt a mode in which it will interpret the code as such.

Q: What are the governing bodies that determine standards mode?

A: The WC3 (World Wide Web Consortium) and the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

Q: What is "HTML strict"?

A: Not allowing old style markup attributes in HTML (e.g. <td align='left'>).

Q: What is "HTML transitional"?

A: Retired elements of applet, basefont, center, dir, font, iframe, isindex, menu, noframes, s, strike, u are still allowed.

Q: What are some of the new features of HTML5?

A: (1) The HTML5 doctype, (2) Semantic elements, (3) Editable content with contenteditable=”true”, (4) type-able <input> elements (e.g. type=”email”), (5) regex patterns for validation, (6) placeholder text, (7) Local storage, (8) Audio & video support, (9) Data attributes (e.g. <div data-foo=”bar”>), (10) Slider widget (Opera).

Q: What are the purposes of new semantic elements?

A: Conveying intent, giving clues to search engines, leveraging features that browsers may (eventually) build in

Q: Name some of the new semantic elements.

A: figure, figcaption, header, footer, nav, section, article, aside, progress, menu

Q: What are the new media elements in HTML5?

A: <audio>, <video>, <source>, <embed>, <track>

Q: What are some of the new <input> types in HTML5?

A. tel, search, url, email, date, month, time, number

Q: What advantage do the new HTML5 <input> types give mobile?

A: The browser will bring up different input keyboards depending on whether it is phone, email, etc.

Q: What are some new attributes for <input> in HTML5?

A: required, pattern, autofocus, placeholder, max, min, formnovalidate, formation, step, valueAsNumber, dataset

Q: What new methods are added to <input> in HTML5?

A: stepUp, stepDown, setCustomValidity

Q: What are the principles of Responsive Design?

A: grids, images and fonts sized with percentages; media queries triggered by various width breakpoints; coding for mobile first and progressively enhancing it for larger media

Q: Is it a best practice to always close your tags?

A:  No.  Self closing tags unnecessary and occasionally dangerous. Browsers strip them off, and in the case of a tag which must be closed (like< script>) that will create an error.

Q: What tags and attributes were eliminated in HTML5?

A: Tags:  u, base font, center,  strike, tr, frame, frame set, noframes, applet  (and some others).  Attributes:   align, valign, height, width, bgcolor, many other classics.

Q: What does “fallback strategy” mean?

A: "fallback" is  a strategy that allows you to define an HTML5 element or provide a substitute action for it in a browser that doesn't support it.  Each input type creates the opportunity for the developer to implement a widget to handle it (e.g. a date picker for month, week or date).  Different browsers may have these already built in.  (Opera has a lot of them built in)

Q:  What new CSS3 pseudo-classes can be used with HTML5's validation support?

A: :valid, :invalid, :in-range, :out-of-range, :required, :optional

Q: What can you do to provide HTML5 support to an older browser?

A:  Look for HTMLShiv by Remy Sharp and Modernizr.js

Q: His approach to onclick in <a>:  Href always contains the target URL; use event.preventDefault() in the handler instead of returning false.  Use data-xxxx attributes to handle the "arguments" to the handler. (downside: we are mixing presentation with data)

Q: What is the difference between the alt and title tags for <img>?

A: alt is for conveying the content of the image when the image cannot be seen (either due to a sightless user, or a browser that doesn’t support images). Also, alt information is used by search engines.  title is for the explanatory text that pops up on mouse rollover.


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